Do you like what you read here? If you do, be sure to click on the "Follow" link at the top left of the screen, or just a little bit down the screen on the left.

Thanks! :)

Wretha

Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Social Networking


I found a social networking site that is, ready for this? Conservative, yes I said conservative, I have had a good time being a member there, much better than Face Book. Check them out

http://rtr.org/

Here's my profile there

http://rtr.org/Wretha

Friday, December 10, 2010

Power Corrupts, Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely

Perhaps I shouldn't write under the influence of hormones and while sick... I really fear for our Nation, I wonder how long this fragile balance will hold out. I see the riots in the UK because of socialism gone bad, the students are pissed because college tuition has gone up, so hundreds, perhaps thousands of them take to the street to protest, and violently. I see this sort of behavior in other countries where socialistic governments give and give until there isn't anything left to give, the people are taxed to death (and even after death), wealth is redistributed, then when things fail because there are more mouths to feed than there is food to go around, the people riot, they riot when services are cut, these people have been taken care of by nanny government from cradle to the grave and they know no other way to live. I worry about the powers that be in our government are trying to do that to us, to make us dependent on them, to take our freedoms away in the process.

Now the parties in power are fighting among themselves even more than ever, the dems want to tax and spend and are pissed deluxe because they lost so bad this last November, the repubs are trying to negotiate their way back into power, it's nice that they are extending the Bush tax cuts, but at what expense? Giving an extra year of unemployment benefits? It is a well known fact that statistically more people find work during the last month of unemployment benefits. I have no problem with safety nets, but please, don't allow it to become a way of life. God only knows what else they are signing away behind closed doors, they way they do things is to sneak the bills that the majority of the people would object to into other bills, we don't even have a clue as to what these people are are doing to us.

The majority of house and senate members have no idea what it's like to have to work for a living, to have to struggle, it's all a game to them, they really have no concept of being fiscally responsible, having to really budget to live. While they fight over paper and power, the rest of the country is trying to get on with life, I really don't see how things can get better, I can only pray that it will. Will you pray with me?

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Tweak Obamacare says Reid

Reid Says Willing to 'Tweak' Obamacare
Wednesday, 03 Nov 2010 08:15 AM


Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid Wednesday said he is willing to make changes to the landmark healthcare reform legislation passed earlier this year.

"If there's some tweaking we need to do with the healthcare bill, I'm ready for some tweaking," Reid, a Democrat, said in an interview on CNN, after Republicans captured the U.S. House of Representatives in Tuesday's midterm elections.

Republicans strengthened their ranks in the Senate, but Democrats maintained a majority in that chamber. http://www.newsmax.com/InsideCover/reid-obamacare-ready-tweak/2010/11/03/id/375851?s=al&promo_code=B0BE-1

If the term "tweak" means they will take out the "you are forced by law to join/pay", then I'm all for this. The sad thing is I would probably be interested in this, especially if it means a lower bill, right now I'm not covered by any sort of health care insurance, but by golly, don't tell me I HAVE to join under penalty of law!

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Canseco Wins

It would seem that Canseco has won district 23 in Texas, Fox news has called him the winner, and with 88% of the vote counted, Canseco has 50%, Ciro has 44%, the independents come in at less than 5% each. Ciro has yet to concede, I guess he wants to hang on to hope as long as he can. I'm going to bed, I suspect that when I log on to the internet tomorrow, Ciro will have condeded and Canseco will be the official winner.

I hope that Canseco follows through with what needs to be done now, the fair tax needs to be implemented, the border needs to be secured, Obamacare needs to be repealed and lots more needs to happen.

I am also happy to see all of those red states, especially the ones that used to be blue.

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Fair Tax Huckabee Video

Mike Huckabee is a major advocate for the fair tax, the more I learn about it, the more I like it and want it, I wonder if we could really make such a change to our tax system, it would you know, get rid of the IRS.

Friday, October 15, 2010

We Won This Battle...

This is one step in a series of steps that need to be won in order to overturn Obamacare being forced upon everyone.

Federal Judge Roger Vinson on Thursday afternoon tossed out three of the states' six objections to Obamacare, and ruled another one moot.


But he gave the states and the National Federation of Independent Business, which has joined the lawsuit, permission to press forward on the two points most legal analysts say are their strongest:


* That a federally mandated expansion of Medicaid will "run [state] budgets off a cliff."
* That the individual mandate requiring people to have healthcare insurance exceeds the federal government's constitutional authority, under the Commerce Clause, to regulate interstate commerce.
Now, we need to vote in conservatives and get rid of the socialastic politicians, send 'em home with their tails between their legs, once we have a majority of conservatives in the Senate and House, we have a real chance of repealing Obamacare and getting our country back on track.

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

United States of North Mexico?

I went to Ciro's site today and noticed a revamp of his site, the background is a faded, gray scale image of the American flag, the dominant colors on his site are green, in fact, besides the pictures and videos, green is the only color. What happened to Red White and Blue? I can't help but think of the Mexican flag with the prominent green field. Or perhaps Ciro is trying to appeal to the green movement (the greenies). I just don't know exactly what he is trying to represent, but I know what I see, something unAmerican, a subtle jab at the American flag.

I found out that I can vote without having to go into town, a good thing for me as I would have to catch a ride with someone else, voting is going to be held at a local church in my community, yeah! I can get to that place on my own. I wish I had a t-shirt with Canseco's message on it, I would wear it to vote and would hang out at the church, I know most of the people in my community, it would be a great time visiting and letting people know I support Canseco at the same time. I just contributed some money to Canseco, this is the second time I have done this, I don't have much, but I'm happy to share what I do have, I have learned that if everyone would contribute even a small amount, it adds up.

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

Score!

I will admit that I'm fairly new to politics, well somewhat new. For example, I know about the governor's race, and I am learning about my local representatives. I was in the process of finding out who else is going to be on the ballot come November. A few days ago, I was working at the Country Store, it's a very small store in the middle of our small community. A gentleman walked in, someone I didn't know, that is somewhat rare, I know or at least have seen most everyone who lives in my community, there aren't that many. He introduced himself Marc Wetzel, he is running for the school board in my county and wanted to meet the various people in the community and ask for their vote. I invited him to sit down and have a chat. This is a first for me, I have never had someone running for any office come to me and ask me in person for my vote. We had a nice chat, I enjoyed talking to him and will most likely vote for him, unless something drastic comes up to make me change my mind.

Other than our nice chat, I got something very valuable from him, something that will save me so much time, before he left, he was getting more cards out of his truck, he mentioned that he had a sample ballot, and it had all the names of everyone running for office that we will be voting on. I asked him if I could have that copy, turns out that he had 2 and was willing to part with one, SCORE!

Now I am armed with the names of all the candidates that I can vote for, unfortunately several of them are running uncontested and they are dems, oh well, can't have everything.

I watched a Stossel show this evening, he was talking about voting with no knowledge of who you are voting for and what affects that has, Stossel is of the opinion that one should vote AFTER learning about who the candidates are and learning about politics, the Constitution and how it affects our lives. Stossel is a Libertarian and wants smaller government, no matter who is in charge. He doesn't want people going out to vote who have little or no knowledge of who they are voting for. It was an interesting show. I am doing my part Stossel!

Monday, October 4, 2010

Texas Lawmaker Wants Guard Troops on Request-repost

Texas Lawmaker Wants Guard Troops on Request
Monday, 04 Oct 2010 08:14 AM

By: Jerry Seper

A Texas Republican who steadfastly has prodded the federal government to better secure the U.S.-Mexico border has introduced legislation requiring the Defense Department to make National Guard troops available to states on request.

Rep. Ted Poe, in response to what he called the federal governments failure to answer the repeated requests of border state governors to protect the nation's international borders, has offered the National Guard Border Enforcement Act to ensure that border states "have the needed resources to protect their citizens from the ongoing border-related violence."

The bill, endorsed by 20 other Republican members of the House, would authorize the secretary of defense to make 10,000 National Guard troops available on request from a U.S. governor. In addition, the troops would be paid for by the federal government and serve under the command of the requesting governor.

"The first duty of the federal government is to protect its people," Mr. Poe said. "Texans are tired of the federal government's failure to secure our borders and enforce our laws, yet at the same time running roughshod over state governments when they try to enforce the law and protect their citizens.

"The federal governments 'not our problem' attitude is unacceptable and this legislation will require the Defense Department to do what they were created to do — protect the people of this country and the dignity of our borders," he said.

Currently, the Defense Department has allocated only 250 National Guard troops for the entire 1,254-mile Texas-Mexico border and Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano has said Texas must pay for any additional troops to enforce existing federal immigration laws along the international border.

Rep. John Culberson, Texas Republican and one of the bill's co-sponsors, said the federal government is "directly responsible for enforcing existing laws to secure our borders and ensure the safe and legal movement of people, goods and commerce across our borders."

"Unfortunately, President Obama has failed in this effort, and it is now time for Congress to act," Mr. Culberson said. "There is a war on our southern border, and it is time to put an end to the horrific violence."

More than 28,000 people have been killed in Mexico's ongoing drug war, which U.S. authorities have said has spilled into the United States.

In September, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) posted signs along a major interstate highway in Arizona, warning travelers the area was unsafe because of drug and alien smugglers.

Pinal County, Ariz., Sheriff Paul Babeu, whose county lies at the center of major drug- and alien-smuggling routes to Phoenix and cities east and west, warned last month that Mexican drug cartels now control some parts of the state.

"This is going on here in Arizona," he said. "This is 70 to 80 miles from the border — 30 miles from the fifth-largest city in the United States."

Under the National Guard Border Enforcement Act, troops will be authorized to conduct armed vehicle and foot patrols on the U.S. southern border; interdict vehicles, vessels, aircraft or other, similar activities; search, seize and detain suspects; construct roads, fences and vehicle barriers; conduct search-and-rescue operations; gather intelligence; conduct surveillance and reconnaissance; and rely on aviation support.

Additionally, the bill would allow the secretary of defense to authorize additional troops should operational control of the U.S. border not be achieved with the first 10,000 National Guard troops deployed.

Mr. Poe, a former state judge and prosecutor, has been a longtime advocate of increased border security. Recently, he warned during a speech on the House floor that Americans were being targeted inside the United States, including fisherman on Falcon Lake in Zapata County, Texas, one of the best bass-fishing spots in the United States. The lake is part of the international boundary between Texas and Mexico.

"That piece of paradise has been intruded on this month by the lawlessness seeping over from the Mexican border," he said, noting that in two separate incidents, U.S. fishermen were robbed at gunpoint on the lake by Mexican pirates, who held AR-15 rifles to their heads.

On Thursday, a McAllen, Texas, man was fatally shot after being ambushed by six Mexican pirates in two boats on Falcon Lake. Zapata County Sheriff Sigifredo Gonzalez identified the victim as David Michael Hartley, 30, who was riding with his wife on personal watercraft on the lake.

Sheriff Gonzalez told reporters that Mr. Hartley's wife tried circling back to pull him from the water, but she was forced to retreat after being fired at by the gunmen.

"What are these pirates doing on Falcon Lake?" asked Mr. Poe. "Are they moving drugs or people or worse across the water? We don't know. In the 1800s, Thomas Jefferson sent the Navy to protect Americans from pirates in the Mediterranean. This administration is blissfully silent about the pirates on Falcon Lake.

"Meanwhile, the border war continues," he said. "And that's just the way it is."


See original article here:
http://www.newsmax.com/InsideCover/LawmakerGuardTroops-Request/2010/10/04/id/372398?s=al&promo_code=AE9C-1

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Hmmmmm


It would seem that I have attracted some attention here. I haven't been writing this blog for long, don't even have that many followers yet, though it is growing, I guess I have inserted the keywords that would attract the attention of someone in Washington DC, I didn't say anything on the first visit, but today's visit makes things different. I am hoping this is just a friendly visit...

Just curious as to who you are, I would appreciate an email if you would do that, thanks so much. :)
wretha(at)gmail.com

It's About Time!

I finally got to see this video, I'd been hearing about it for days, I love the fact that this successful, black woman stood up and said what was on her mind to Obama, I only wish more people could and would do this. You will note that I said black instead of the PC moniker "African-American", not ALL people of color come from Africa, and quite frankly even if they did, how long does one continue to hyphenate the country of origin, how many generations have to pass before they are just plain Americans? My family background is diverse, from many countries, should I be saying "English Irish German-Dutch Comanche Apache American? No, how silly would that be? I am an American, born in the USA.



and in fairness, here is Obama's reply:







keywords:
Town Hall Questioner To Obama: I'm Exhausted Of Defending You.

This Is SICK-Bill Requiring Children to State Their Sexual Orientation

Want to hear something really sick??? There is a congresswoman, Tammy Baldwin, she is openly gay, perhaps that is why she thinks it's a great idea to make is mandatory to ask anyone seeking any sort of social services (food stamps...) about their sexual identity, if they are straight, gay, lesbian, transsexual...  oh, they are only "collecting" data. And it doesn't stop there, this is not only for adults to have to answer, this includes CHILDREN!!! This bill is so slimy that Democraps are slipping out the back door when this bill comes up for discussion instead of just voting NO.

What kind of lowlife thinks it's a good idea to ask CHILDREN about their sexual preferences? Maybe Baldwin gets her kicks from this sort of thing (my opinion), I just don't know. I do know this, thank GOD I don't have children (any more) to have to go through this sort of humiliation, no it wouldn't be a humiliation, it would be a major unpleasant scene if someone tried to ask a child of mine about their sexual orientation. Perhaps this Baldwin is proud of her sexual orientation, but not everyone is going to be interested in being forthcoming about their sexual preferences, especially if this information is going to go on to a government document, to go into data storage, what business is it of theirs anyhow? It's NOT, it's NONE OF THEIR BUSINESS who you are attracted to, and it's certainly not appropriate for them to ask this of children!

It's difficult to tell, I think this bill is dead, for now, I could be wrong though, you know how difficult it is to find out any reliable information on these sorts of things, that way they can keep the rest of us in the dark. I went to Tammy Baldwin's website and tried to contact her to let her know what I thought of this bill, it turns out that she will not even allow you to email her from her site unless you are one of her constituents, so I entered the information required to allow my email to go through, it will not take a rocket scientist to figure out that I'm not in her voting circle, BUT that didn't stop me from sending my thoughts anyhow.

Here are the links to the story I have found so far,
http://redwhitebluenews.com/?p=2585
http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=39076&s=rcmp
http://www.opencongress.org/bill/111-h6109/show
Google

If you live in district 2 in Wisconsin, write to Baldwin, let her know what you think of this, if you don't live there, I'd say to write her anyhow, you can put down any street address, make one up, use zip code 53703-3219 and town Madison. Go here to write to Baldwin
http://tammybaldwin.house.gov/send_email.aspx

Be sure to write to your representatives and let them know what you think of this bill, it stinks, it's slimy, it's unethical! Use this to find your representatives:
http://www.congressmerge.com/onlinedb/index.htm


Please pass this around, copy it to your blog, let's put a stop to this sort of nonsense! I have nothing against anyone wanting to live an alternative lifestyle, I have known many gay, lesbian and even transgendered people, they have been neighbors, friends, co-workers, I had and have no problems with them, I don't push my lifestyle choices on them and they don't push their lifestyle choices on me, everyone is happy. Until someone like Baldwin comes along and thinks that we need to do ridiculous things like this, please give me a break! Let's put a stop to Baldwin.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Friday, September 17, 2010

Dems Some Scared People

Wow, after watching the news for the last few days, both Fox and MSNBC, there is a big cry coming from the left, "The Tea Party is coming, the Tea Party is coming!" and the left, they are scared. Scared of how many of the right wing, Bible belt conservative, Christian, pro-Life, 2nd Amendment loving voters are coming to the polls, they see the big shadow cast by the multitudes of the fed up masses. I saw an ad on my gmail today, it was basically a plea from the left to stop the Tea Party, this is what it said:

Don't Let the Tea Party Invade the Senate


Tea Party Republican candidates are running for Senate seats all across the country. Their mission is to obstruct and repeal, turning back the clock on President Obama's agenda-from health care, to the economy, to education. In short, the Tea Partiers are the most extreme candidates the GOP has to offer.
Take Christine O'Donnell, the Sarah Palin-backed Tea Party Senate candidate in Delaware. She's so far out of the mainstream that even the Delaware Republican Party has called her "reckless," "hypocritical" and "dishonest."
We can't afford to let these Tea Party extremists invade the Senate. Sign up now, and help the DSCC fight back!


Yup, they are scared, they can't stop the movement on the facts so they have fallen back on name calling and fear mongering tactics, well if being a conservative is extreme, then call me extreme, because I'm definitely a  conservative! Yeah, you're darn right that we are going to obstruct and repeal every socialistic idea that Obama and the radical left ever though of, we will repeal Obama care, we don't want or need forced health care, that IS unconstitutional, you do remember that pesky Constitution, right? Don't forget, you work for us, not the other way around!

Yeah, we will take Christine O'Donnell, we will take her all the way to the top, the GOP talking heads who called her reckless, hypocritical and dishonest are wrong, the RINOs had better get their act together too, this flood of pissed off conservatives will wash you away too if you don't pay attention to what is going on around you.

It seems that the dems are concerned about where the money is coming from to support these radical right wing conservative candidates, some of it is coming from, ((GASP)) religious organizations, imagine that, the left has been pushing agendas that are against most Christian peoples' beliefs, and now they are freaking out that Christian organizations are giving money to the candidates who oppose those anti-religious views? This Country was founded on Christian values, we have freedom OF religion, not freedom FROM religion, get over yourselves, those of us of Faith are fighting back, we are tired of being pushed to the sidelines, we are tired of being told we have to hide our beliefs in order to not offend the non-believers, if you don't believe, fine, don't try to stop me from believing, don't try to make me hide my Faith.

So dems, you are right to be afraid, the writing is on the wall, and will be in the voting booth this November, the only thing you have going for you is the fact that you will continue getting paid after you are no longer in office, something that should be repealed as well, no one should continue getting paid for a job after they are no longer doing it, that would go a long way toward paying down our deficit.

Reasons...

...why I will vote for a particular person.

I am researching my choices for my congressional representatives for 2010, District 23 in west Texas. Right now those choices are:
Francisco "Quico" Canseco (R)
Ciro D. Rodriguez (D)
Martin Nitschke (L)
Ed Scharf (G)
Craig T. Stephens (I)

 First let me start with the ones I will not be voting for. Ciro Rodriguez, he is our incumbent, I really knew nothing about him until just a few months ago when I saw a video of him in a local town losing his cool with one of his (possible, don't know if this person voted for him or not) constituents, I have to say that left a bad taste in my mouth, and that was before I found out what is party affiliation is. I have written to Rodriguez on 2 separate occasions to ask that he vote no to certain things, one was about the forced health care, he did write me back, AFTER voting the way HE wanted to vote, and then told me why he voted yes on it, I guess I'm too stupid to know what is best for me (in his mind anyhow). I do not like the way he votes, nor do I want our government to become any more socialistic than it already is. So for Rodriguez, I vote NO.

I tried to find out something about Martin Nitschke, a Libertarian, I found a website, but can't really read it, there is a big text field over the website stating that the website is currently unavailable, it's been that way for days. I can SEE the website behind the text box, I can read some of what is written there and I would agree with what I read, the problem is I can't take this person seriously, first he didn't think it was necessary to take the few minutes and few dollars it takes to get a real domain name and set up a real website, right now he is using http://martinnitschke2010.ning.com, and for whatever reason, that is not even working, so sorry Nitschke, in a time when unknowns are getting voted in because the people are tired of the same old same old, you don't even get to first base because of your lack of whatever it takes to create a real website with your information, I vote NO.

Next comes Ed Sharf, he is endorsed by the Green party. Link, link. Again, no real website, all I could find was a site put out by the Green party and a couple of other websites, not one he created, come on candidates, how hard is it to pay a kid a couple of bucks to create a website? What I have found is that he is he doesn't live anywhere near me, he is in his mid 70s, is (or has been) a business owner (that's good), has no prior political experience (may be good, may not be good), and has no religious affiliation, looks like he is either afraid to say he is Christian, or he is not a Christian, either way it's not good for me, so I vote NO.

Now there is Craig T. Stephens, Independent, I found a website http://www.letsfixcongress.com, and a Facebook & MySpace page, at least this guy knows how to work the internet. I even like what he has to say, though he does gloss over a few important (to me) items, like God and abortion, he mentions them, but the way I read what he has to say is he isn't running on religion, and the abortion issue isn't as important as getting the finances of the Country back in order. I agree with what he writes, then I click on his "about us" page, he says that 4 years ago, he was running for this same office and he caused a runoff between the Repub and the Dem, apparently the Repub would have won otherwise, because of the runoff, the Dem won, that worries me, Stephens only got 3% of the vote, that was enough to (seemingly) mess everything up so that Rodriguez got in, can I take the risk that this may happen again? I just wrote to Stephens to ask his how he plans to prevent the same scenario from happening again, I eagerly await his reply, I'll post it here. Until then,  sorry Stephens, unless I find out something different between now and voting day, I regretfully may have to vote NO.
I received a timely reply from Stephens, here is what he wrote:

Thank you for contacting me.


You have a very legitimate question and I understand that there is a belief that voting for an Independent is rather like throwing your vote away. This was absolutely true in the past, but I believe that we are past that point and that the Independent Candidate has gain credibility over the past four years.


In 2006 I had 3344 people vote for me, and yes that was rougly 3.5% of the vote. It was not enough to win, but from where I was sitting, it didn't matter to me if a Democrat or a Republican won, I thought then, and I still believe that both parties are unable to do what is right for us. I believe that history has proven this to be true.


I am a U.S. Military combat veteran, a Husband, a Father, a Business Owner and I absolutely love this country. I would never do anything to hurt this country, and if I thought for a moment that my running for office would be detrimental, I would withdraw.


As you watch the news, you will see grass roots organizations springing up all over the country. The most visible is the Tea Party. I think that America has realized that both the Democrats and Republicans are bad for our futures and the futures of our children.


What I am doing to prevent wasting votes, such as yours, is that I'm working tirelessly. You could help me by talking to your family, friends and neighbors about me. This election has a Republican, a Democrat, a Green Party, a Libertarian and an Independent (that's me). The vote will flatten out across the candidates with no one taking a majority. Every vote is of vital importance to every candidate.


This may be one of the rare times in life when the little guys really can make a difference. I'm trying, please help me.


Very Respectfully,


Craig T. Stephens
Independent Candidate - U.S. Congress - Texas 23rd District
craig.stephens@letsfixcongress.com
210-563-8304
I'll be watching Stephens to see what comes of him, I'd like to see him in, but I still have my doubts as to his electability, what I don't want to see is Ciro get back in.

Which leaves me with  Francisco "Quico" Canseco, Republican, he is smart enough to put up a website, http://www.cansecoforcongress.com/, and generally I like what he has to say, I believe he is electable, so chances are pretty good that I will vote for him.I just emailed him to ask about his position on forced health care, aka Obama-care. Let's see how quickly he responds and what his response will be.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

My Local Representatives

With the November mid-terms coming up, I have been looking in to the options I have available to me. Living in west Texas, right now my representative is Ciro D. Rodriguez, he does have a "D" by his name, although you wouldn't know it from his website, I had to really dig to find out his political affiliation, you'd think he'd be proud of it and would place that information prominently on his site, nope, not there, at least not when and where I looked, I found that info on Wikipedia.



I used to not vote, I just didn't care, as long as those in power left me and mine alone (I'm not doing anything illegal, so they shouldn't poke their noses in my business) I didn't care who was in office, I figured that all of the elections were rigged anyhow, so what was the point?

Now my thoughts on voting have changed quite a bit, and even though I still feel like the elections are not completely honest, especially the presidential elections (why do we still use the electoral college anyhow?), I do feel like my vote counts on a local basis, and if I can help Ciro D. Rodriguez on his way, far far away this November, that's exactly what I intend to do. Hear that sucking sound Ciro? That's the sound of your political career going down the toilet, oh and I do wish you would volunteer to use Obama care for you and your family, remember the one that you so generously voted for and thought would be so wonderful for the rest of us? Did you even READ it?



I did a little checking and found out the Repub that will most likely replace Ciro is Canseco. That is who I will most likely vote for, I like what I read on his site, I'll be doing more research before the mid-term vote, I will be there, I will vote, democraps your days of running this country into the ground through socialistic means are numbered, I assure you that I will not be the only conservative running out to vote this November.

Now I have to find out who else and what else is going to be on the ballot.

Monday, September 13, 2010

Big John Is Blogging Again

Hey everyone, an internet friend who has been gone way too long from the blogosphere is now back and writing. Some of you already know him, some like him and others do not, that's OK too, we can't all agree with one another all the time but hopefully we can agree to disagree in a civil manner.


Big John has varied interests from survival to dowsing, he has a lot to offer and gives a lot to his readers, he is a bit controversial (in some circles) so he ends up with a lot of trolls leaving comments, there seem to be those who think that John is responsible for taking care of them, well that don't float with John and he is quick to say so, he is very much into personal responsibility, taking care of yourself and your family.


Visit Big John's blog and click on the follow button, let's give him a big welcome back. :)

http://bigjohnlipscomb.blogspot.com/

Thursday, September 2, 2010

Jeff Foxworthy Does It Again

Well, here I go, painting a big ol' target on myself, but I can't help it, this made me laugh. If you are muslim and this offends you, just remember, God created humor too. If you aren't a muslim and this offends you, refer back to God creating humor. If you are an atheist and this offends you, I can't help you.

"You Might Be A Muslim If"
 Jeff Foxworthy comments on Muslims
1. You refine heroin for a living, but you have a moral objection to liquor.
2. You own a $3,000 machine gun and $5,000 rocket launcher, but you can't afford shoes.
3. You have more wives than teeth.
4. You wipe your butt with your bare hand, but consider bacon unclean."
5. You think vests come in two styles: bullet-proof and suicide.
6. You can't think of anyone you haven't declared Jihad against.
7. You consider television dangerous, but routinely carry explosives in your clothing.
8. You were amazed to discover that cell phones have uses other than setting off roadside bombs.
9. You have nothing against women and think every man should own at least four.
10. Your cousin is president of the  United States
11. You find this offensive or racist and don't forward this email.

Stop Big Bro From Killing Small Farms

If you have a blog, pass this around, let's get this out!



Bad eggs AND a Fake "Food Safety"
Bill a coincidence? We don't think so!










Senate Bill S.510 is called 'The Food Safety Bill'. It should be called 'The Food Monopoly Bill'. You see it will require all farms to purchase and use high-tech equipment that family farms and organic farms cannot afford and do not need. It will put these farms out of business. This is shameful because the bad food occasionally produced in this country does not come from these little farms- it comes from Big Agribiz and they already HAVE the hi-tech equipment required by this law. It seems the equipment hasn't improved the food they produce, and they don't like competition from responsible farmers - they prefer a Bill that hands them a monopoly over food production by destroying that competition. Further, this Bill is written in such an open-ended way, that if the Feds choose to, they can use it to stop you from having a home garden.

Also-- the Feds are handing food distribution in this country over to Homeland Security. That means that food may be scarce in one part of the country, and plentiful in another, according to "politics". Of course, if family and organic farms are wiped out, the food they move around will be largely processed and not very good, anyway. But it will be all that is available.

How to stop this travesty?? Click below to send a message to your Senators that you are aware of the Food Safety Scam and you don't want the Feds in your
kitchen. Further - consider taking off the white gloves and calling both of your Senators' offices and insist on knowing their positions on this Bill and let them know that you are against it -- and furious that it is even being considered! Make sure your friends and family are aware of this Bill - the media will be touting it as a wonderful advancement- but they work for the same masters who own Congress. So spread the word and click below to make sure a letter from you gets to Washington. Your family's health depends on it!

Bad eggs AND a Fake "Food Safety" Bill a coincidence? We don't think so!
Take Action Here NOW! -
http://salsa.democracyinaction.org/o/568/p/dia/action/public/?action_KEY=4613

Thursday, August 26, 2010

Build It Somewhere Else

Just throwin' in my 2 cents here, about the Ground Zero mosque, I don't understand what all the fuss is about, the American people don't want it, it is causing strife and division, so build it somewhere else, problem solved. From what I understand, there have been offers made to help build it in another place, so there is no problem, consider the feelings of all the victims of 9-11, all the people who were attacked in the name of Islam, this might not represent all Muslims, but like it or not, this was done in the name of Islam, so it's understandable that the American people, the majority of the American people do not want a mosque built so close to what is essentially a grave yard for those who were attacked by Muslims. If you, speaking to those who are representing the Muslim faith, want to build bridges and heal the wounds, then BUILT IT SOMEWHERE ELSE, problem solved.

Saturday, August 7, 2010

Which Side Are You On?

Which side of the fence?
If you ever wondered which side of the fence you sit on, this is a great test! This certainly doesn't mean all liberals or conservatives fall into the extremes... but there are those...

If a Conservative doesn't like guns, he doesn’t buy one.
If a Liberal doesn't like guns, he wants all guns banned.

If a Conservative is a vegetarian, he chooses not to eat meat.
If a Liberal is a vegetarian, he wants all meat products banned.

If a Conservative is homosexual, he quietly leads his life.
If a Liberal is homosexual, he demands legislated respect, and special considerations.

If a Conservative is down-and-out, he thinks about how to better his situation.
A Liberal expects the government and tax payers to take care of him as an entitlement.

If a Conservative doesn't like a talk show host, he switches channels.
Liberals demand that those they don't like be shut down.

If a Conservative is a non-believer, he doesn't go to church.
A Liberal non-believer wants any mention of God and religion silenced.

If a Conservative decides he needs health care, he goes about shopping for it, or chooses a job that provides it.
A Liberal demands that the rest of us pay for his as an entitlement.

If a Conservative reads this, he'll forward it so his friends can have a good laugh.
A Liberal will delete it because he's greatly "offended".

Well, I forwarded it. What are you going to do?

What Happened?

I ran across this article today and found it to be refreshing and true, I feel that it needs to be copied here, I originally found it here: http://tigermtnemprep.blogspot.com/2010/08/what-happened.html

Anything in red is what I edited or added, otherwise the article is copied intact.


This is about as clear and easy to understand as it can be - please read it!!


The article below is completely neutral, ...not republican or democrat. (the original article said "antirepublican, I removed the "anti" to make it completely neutral)
Charlie Reese, a retired reporter for the Orlando Sentinel has hit the nail directly on the head, defining clearly who it is that in the final analysis must assume responsibility for the judgments made that impact each one of us every day.



545 vs. 300,000,000

EVERY CITIZEN NEEDS TO READ THIS AND THINK ABOUT WHAT THIS JOURNALIST SAYS IN THIS MESSAGE. READ IT AND THEN REALLY THINK ABOUT OUR CURRENT POLITICAL DEBACLE.

Charley Reese has been a journalist for 49 years.

545 PEOPLE--By Charlie Reese

Politicians are the only people in the world who create problems and then campaign against them..

Have you ever wondered, if both the Democrats and the Republicans are against deficits, WHY do we have deficits?

Have you ever wondered, if all the politicians are against inflation and high taxes, WHY do we have inflation and high taxes?

You and I don't propose a federal budget. The president does.

You and I don't have the Constitutional authority to vote on appropriations. The House of Representatives does.

You and I don't write the tax code, Congress does.

You and I don't set fiscal policy, Congress does.

You and I don't control monetary policy, the Federal Reserve Bank does.

One hundred senators, 435 congressmen, one president, and nine Supreme Court justices equates to 545 human beings out of the 300 million are directly, legally, morally, and individually responsible for the domestic problems that plague this country.

I excluded the members of the Federal Reserve Board because that problem was created by the Congress. In 1913, Congress delegated its Constitutional duty to provide a sound currency to a federally chartered, but private, central bank.

I excluded all the special interests and lobbyists for a sound reason. They have no legal authority They have no ability to coerce a senator, a congressman, or a president to do one cotton-picking thing. I don't care if they offer a politician $1 million dollars in cash. The politician has the power to accept or reject it. No matter what the lobbyist promises, it is the legislator's responsibility to determine how he votes.

Those 545 human beings spend much of their energy convincing you that what they did is not their fault. They cooperate in this common con regardless of party.

What separates a politician from a normal human being is an excessive amount of gall. No normal human being would have the gall of a Speaker, who stood up and criticized the President for creating deficits.... . The president can only propose a budget. He cannot force the Congress to accept it.

The Constitution, which is the supreme law of the land, gives sole responsibility to the House of Representatives for originating and approving appropriations and taxes. Who is the speaker of the House? Nancy Pelosi. She is the leader of the majority party. She and fellow House members, not the president, can approve any budget they want. If the president vetoes it, they can pass it over his veto if they agree to.

It seems inconceivable to me that a nation of 300 million can not replace 545 people who stand convicted -- by present facts -- of incompetence and irresponsibility. I can't think of a single domestic problem that is not traceable directly to those 545 people. When you fully grasp the plain truth that 545 people exercise the power of the federal government, then it must follow that what exists is what they want to exist.

If the tax code is unfair, it's because they want it unfair.

If the budget is in the red, it's because they want it in the red.

If the Army & Marines are in IRAQ , it's because they want them in IRAQ. (of which I have no problem, we need to take care of business over there or we will be taking care of it here in the USA, IMHO)


If they do not receive social security but are on an elite retirement plan not available to the people, it's because they want it that way.

There are no insoluble government problems.

Do not let these 545 people shift the blame to bureaucrats, whom they hire and whose jobs they can abolish; to lobbyists, whose gifts and advice they can reject; to regulators, to whom they give the power to regulate and from whom they can take this power.


Above all, do not let them con you into the belief that there exists disembodied mystical forces like "the economy," "inflation," or "politics" that prevent them from doing what they take an oath to do.

Those 545 people, and they alone, are responsible. They, and they alone, have the power..

They, and they alone, should be held accountable by the people who are their bosses.

Provided the voters have the gumption to manage their own employees...

We should vote each of them out of office and clean up their mess!

Charlie Reese is a former columnist of the Orlando Sentinel Newspaper.
What you do think should be done?

The following might be funny if it weren't so true.

Tax his land, Tax his bed, Tax the table, At which he's fed.

Tax his tractor, Tax his mule, Teach him taxes Are the rule.

Tax his work, Tax his pay, He works for peanuts Anyway!

Tax his cow, Tax his goat, Tax his pants, Tax his coat.

Tax his ties, Tax his shirt, Tax his work, Tax his dirt.

Tax his tobacco, Tax his drink, Tax him if he Tries to think.

Tax his cigars, Tax his beers, If he cries, Tax his tears.

Tax his car, Tax his gas, Find other ways To tax his ass.

Tax all he has Then let him know That you won't be done Till he has no dough.

When he screams and hollers; Then tax him some more, Tax him till He's good and sore.

Then tax his coffin, Tax his grave, Tax the sod in Which he's laid...

Put these words Upon his tomb, 'Taxes drove me to my doom'...
When he's gone, Do not relax, Its time to apply The inheritance tax..

Sales Tax
School Tax
Liquor Tax
Luxury Tax
Excise Taxes
Property Tax
Cigarette Tax
Medicare Tax
Inventory Tax
Real Estate Tax
Well Permit Tax
Fuel Permit Tax
Inheritance Tax
Road Usage Tax
CDL license Tax
Dog License Tax
State Income Tax
Food License Tax
Vehicle Sales Tax
Gross Receipts Tax
Social Security Tax
Service Charge Tax
Fishing License Tax
Federal Income Tax
Building Permit Tax
IRS Interest Charges
Hunting License Tax
Marriage License Tax
Corporate Income Tax
Personal Property Tax
Accounts Receivable Tax
Recreational Vehicle Tax
Workers Compensation Tax
Watercraft Registration Tax
Telephone Usage Charge Tax
Telephone Federal Excise Tax
Telephone State and Local Tax
IRS Penalties (tax on top of tax)
State Unemployment Tax (SUTA)
Federal Unemployment Tax (FUTA)
Telephone Minimum Usage Surcharge Tax
Telephone Federal Universal Service Fee Tax
Gasoline Tax (currently 44.75 cents per gallon)
Utility Taxes Vehicle License Registration Tax
Telephone Federal, State and Local Surcharge Taxes
Telephone Recurring and Nonrecurring Charges Tax

STILL THINK THIS IS FUNNY?


Not one of these taxes existed 100 years ago, & our nation was the most prosperous in the world.
We had absolutely no national debt, had the largest middle class in the world, and Mom stayed home to raise the kids.

What in the hell happened? Can you spell 'politicians? ' I hope this goes around THE USA at least 100 times!!!
YOU can help it get there!!!

GO AHEAD - - - BE AN AMERICAN!!!

Thursday, July 22, 2010

McPolitics

Last week, while in town, something I don't do very often. My friend and I were at the local McD's eating some lunch. An employee walked past, my friend waved and said "hi" to him. It seems that my friend had talked to him before.

The next time he walked past our table, he looked at me and asked me if I was running for office. I assured him that I had no intentions of doing such a thing, that started a political conversation. This man, we will call him L turned out to be a democrat. My friend started describing a T-shirt that was given to me, on the front it says "Government is a parasite", on the back it has a big middle finger sticking up, that just about describes my feelings about government.

L started talking about how he wanted to vote on the up coming mid-terms, he believes that the government needs to spend even MORE money in order to bring up the economy, the sad part is he really believes this, he believes the government is responsible for taking care of us and giving us free health care. I tried to explain to him this logic, if you are in debt, and you have no money, you need to STOP SPENDING MORE! It makes no sense to keep spending and spending, tax and spend, and redistribution of wealth will harm this country and the people. Our leaders need to cut up the proverbial credit card and stop printing more worthless money.

I tried to explain to L how it is so much better to be independent, to be able to take care of yourself. I described how PB and I left everything to move to our off grid home, how we did everything ourselves, how we live independent from as much government interference as possible and how happy we are doing this. That's when L told me that he owns a small amount of acreage in a neighboring town, he is interested in doing the off grid thing, so it seems that we have some common ground, wanting to live off grid takes an independent soul, hopefully this is a step in the right direction for L. One step at a time, maybe I can help L understand how it is better to live free of the government "handouts", those handouts come with strings, those strings are very long and strong, strings are for puppets (marionettes), we need to get back to "we the people", it's time to wake up sheeple!

Monday, June 21, 2010

NO MORE IDs FOR US!

We don't want nor do we need this! Our government needs to stop looking inward, toward the law abiding, FREE citizens and stop treating us like we are the criminals!  Here is some more sad and infuriating news about what nanny.gov is trying to do to us.



Instead of controlling our borders, the politicians want to control you and me.

They want to give amnesty to illegal immigrants and make us prove we’re not criminals!

And they plan to do that by ramming through another Biometric National ID card scheme!

That’s why it’s vital you sign the petition to your Congressman and Senators IMMEDIATELY.

This is the email I received a few minutes ago:

Terrorism. Illegal immigration. Identity theft. Drugs. Fraud.

Call me cynical, but whenever I hear anti-gun politicians talk about these issues nowadays, I've come to expect a new thinly-veiled assault on our Second Amendment freedoms.

Either they want to ban our guns, track our guns . . .

. . . Or track us.

Well, after years of watching our illegal immigration problem grow steadily worse -- and watching our elected officials refuse to lift a finger in response -- the politicians' "fix" is finally in.

It's a new Federal Biometric ID card.

That's right. Instead of controlling our borders, the politicians want to control you and me. They want to give amnesty to illegal immigrants and make us prove we're not criminals!

And President Barack Obama, Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and Chuck Schumer (D-NY) are all working hand in glove to ram this new scheme into law as part of their new "comprehensive immigration reform" package.

That's why it's vital you sign the petition to your Congressman and Senators IMMEDIATELY.


If passed, the Federal Biometric ID card included in the new amnesty bill will:

* Include a "unique biometric identifier" -- like fingerprints, retinal scans or even a scan of the veins on the back of your hand; and,
* Allow bureaucrats to watch your every move, as the Federal Biometric ID card will almost certainly be produced with RFID tracking technology; and,
* Include virtually unlimited amounts of personal information about you -- like what guns you own, for instance.

And this new Federal Biometric ID would be required for any person wishing to hold a job legally in the United States.

So I guess the welfare recipients don't have to get one.

I don't know about you, but I'm outraged.

It seems that whenever politicians are using terrorism, crime, illegal immigration or something else as their excuse, it's really you and me in their crosshairs.

Just remember those Department of Homeland Security memos listing pro-gun, pro-constitution activists as "domestic extremists."

How would you like to be told you can't board a plane because your new Federal Biometric ID Card told a TSA agent you supported some political candidate the new anti-gun regime thinks is too "pro-constitution?"


Even if you place complete 100% trust in the intentions of all federal government bureaucrats, what if there's some "accident?"

After all, you and I have heard the news stories of government officials "losing" laptops chockfull of hundreds of thousands of records including folks' names, social security numbers, addresses and birthdates.

And, of course, you and I cannot ignore the fact that since ID cards are required to purchase a firearm, the Federal Biometric ID scheme will likely create a de facto national gun registry.

That's why it's so important you click here to sign the petition IMMEDIATELY.

Unfortunately, this fight will not be easy -- just take a look at the makeup of Congress.

Anti-gun, anti-freedom Speaker Nancy Pelosi has an enormous House majority.

Throwing party labels aside in the Senate and counting EVERY anti-gun Senator leaves you and me with a steep hill to climb.

And, of course, we can't forget about President Obama.

He's already come out publicly in favor of Senator Lindsey Graham's and Chuck Schumer's "bipartisan" bill -- so you and I must expect he'll do whatever it takes to enact the Federal Biometric ID scheme.

There's no doubt about it -- our backs are against the wall.

But there is good news.


Coming on the heels of the Healthcare fight -- and all the lies, smoky backroom deals and outright bribery employed to ram the bill into law -- there's not a real cozy feeling of "bipartisanship" right now in the U.S. Senate.

That's a HUGE plus.

It could be that with the exception of Senator Graham and perhaps a couple of others, you and I may not have as much difficulty in keeping even marginally pro-gun Republican U.S. Senators in our fold as we would normally.

Also, many key Democrat Senators come from states that have recently REFUSED to comply with the original DANGEROUS ID Bill.

As we move deeper into this election year, many of these Democrats are going to grow even more nervous about voting AGAINST their state legislatures to pass the similar new Federal Biometric ID Scheme.

That means we can win this fight, but it won't be easy.

The anti-gun politicians believe their best shot at passing the Federal Biometric ID scheme is to move FAST.

That's why your IMMEDIATE help is so vital.

The goal is to start a grassroots fire against a new Federal Biometric ID scheme in the states represented by key Republican and Democrat Senators.

We'll point out that there's an overwhelming majority of citizens in their states who are opposed to a Federal Biometric ID card.

We'll also mention these voters are ALL watching these Senators' votes very carefully this election year.

Believe me, these Senators WILL get the message.

I know I'm asking a lot from you. But this could be it.

This could be the major, knock-down, drag-out fight we've been waiting for ever since President Obama was elected.

Until now, we've beaten the gun-control crowd to the punch -- publicizing and mobilizing a firestorm of grassroots opposition to the gun-grabbers radical schemes before they could even get them off the ground.

But unless you act now, we won't be so lucky this time.

The Constitution for the United States




The Constitution for the United States

Here is the complete text of the U.S. Constitution. The original spelling and capitalization have been retained.


We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


Article I

Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of Honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time: and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;--And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.


Article II

Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.


Article III

Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of another State;--between Citizens of different States;--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.


Article IV

Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records, and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.


Article V

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.


Article VI

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwith-standing.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.


Article VII

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth

In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

George Washington--President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire: John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts: Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut: William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York: Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey: William Livingston, David Brearly, William Paterson, Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris

Delaware: George Read, Gunning Bedford, Jr., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom

Maryland: James McHenry, Daniel of Saint Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll

Virginia: John Blair, James Madison, Jr.

North Carolina: William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson

South Carolina: John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia: William Few, Abraham Baldwin

Amendment I (1791)

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.


Amendment II (1791)

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.


Amendment III (1791)

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.


Amendment IV (1791)

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.


Amendment V (1791)

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.


Amendment VI (1791)

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.


Amendment VII (1791)

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.


Amendment VIII (1791)

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


Amendment IX (1791)

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.


Amendment X (1791)

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.


Amendment XI (1798)

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.


Amendment XII (1804)

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President—The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.


Amendment XIII (1865)

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XIV (1868)


Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


Amendment XV (1870)

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XVI (1913)

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.


Amendment XVII (1913)

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.



Amendment XVIII (1919)

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


Amendment XIX (1920)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XX (1933)

Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.


Amendment XXI (1933)

Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


Amendment XXII (1951)

Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.


Amendment XXIII (1961)

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XXIV (1964)

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XXV (1967)

Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.



Amendment XXVI (1971)

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.



Amendment XXVII (1992)

No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.